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Hardest natural substance in the world
Diamond, composed of carbon, is the hardest natural substance in the world. Each carbon atom is surrounded by four neighboring carbon atoms in a tetrahedral coordination that is the result of a covalent bond and a face-centered arrangement in the cubic unit cell. Diamond may be up to 3 billion years old, which is much older than their surface host rock. Diamond crystallization originates some 200 kilometers, or 320 miles, beneath the surface and the disaggregated crystals are merely transported to the surface via kimberlite and lamproite pipes.
Diamonds have a fascinating history
Individuals and societies have ascribed diamond's important status with both symbolism and industrial value. Therefore, diamonds are fascinating because of the dual nature of scientific-industrial practicality and romantic appeal created through traditions and advertising. The origin of daimaonds may have been uncovered in the twentieth century, but appreciation for diamond has been known since diamond discovery in India, prior to 400 B.C.E.1. Diamond has been referred to as the essence of purity and invincibility, and a symbol of royalty.
Superior Beauty and Durability
Today, 75-80% of the world's natural diamonds are used for industrial purposes and 20-25% for gemstones. It is the chemical and physical properties of this mineral that give it the superior cutting ability for industrial use. Diamond coatings have improved on diamond's applications in cutting and in aiding semiconductors. It is the optical properties of this mineral that give it the superior beauty and durability to be used as a gemstone. The rarity of this gemstone is related to the igneous rock in which the diamond is recovered.